February 22,1982

Procedural Order (unpublished)

1. That the ISKCON law that the GBC members who have not submitted loyalty oaths not be allowed to vote be waived.

Provisional Order.

2. That HDG Rameswara Swami hold a sub-committee meeting with whoever he appoints to report back to the GBC what should be done to prepare the loyalty oaths.

Provisional Order.

3. That the officers for Caitanya Era -496 (1982-83) are elected as follows:-
Chairman – Sriman Rupanuga Dasa.
Vice Chairman – HDG Jayapataka Swami.
Secretary – HDG Bhagavan Goswami.

FEBRUARY 26, 1982.

1. That a standing committee for the 500 th year anniversary of Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu be formed – composed as follows
1. Jayapataka Swami
2. Jagajivana Swami
3. Gopal Krsna Goswami
4. Bhakti Swarup Damodar Swami
5. A non-GBC member

2. That the responsibility for IFR will be decided on in the presidents meeting.

3. That Jayapataka Swami and Jayatirtha Goswami will work together to make an ISKCON handbook.

4. That Bhanu Das and Syamasundhar Das will work under the guidance of Jayapataka Swami and Jayatirtha Goswami to make an ISKCON calender which will explain holidays and how to celebrate them as well as enabling one to calculate Ekadasi.

5. That Jagadisha and Balavanta will prepare a Constitution for presentation to the GBC body.

6. That Rameswara Swami will organize a society competition for designing an ISKCON logo – to be decided at next years meeting.

7. That all regional secretaries and presidents will be responsible for setting up their zonal exhibition booths at the annual Mayapur festival. This will be followed up by the secretary of the festival committee.

8. The secretary of the festival committee will make available to all GBC, regional secretaries and temple presidents a financial report of the income and expenditure of the Mayapur-Vrndavana Festival (shortly after the festival is finished). Any balance of funds will go to improving the festival facilities.

9. That any zone which did not contribute 1 day’s collection for IFR during 1981 will make this up in 1982 along with their normal yearly committment of 1 day’s collection.

FEBRUARY 27, 1982.

1. That all GBC be nominated as candidates to become initiating Gurus with the requirement that they receive the blessings of 3/4 (three fourths) of the GBC members present to begin their initiating role.
There after the individual GBC men who are initiating will be responsible for recommending new candidates for initiating Guru from the godbrothers within their zone. These names must then receive the blessings of 3/4 (three fourths) of the majority of the GBC present at the annual meeting for them to begin their initiating roles.
The GBC shall prepare a paper elaborating this proposal

2. The following GBC members will take on the responsibilities of initiating Guru :
1. His Holiness Pancadravida Swami.
2. His Holiness Bhakti Swarup Damodar Swami.
3. His Holiness Gopal Krsna Goswami.

3. That HH Prabhupada Krpa Maharaja will be GBC for New York (Manhattan,Long Island, Queens) and the New England area, i.e, NE USA.

FEBRUARY 28, 1982.

1. That a 3/4 (three fourth) majority vote of GBC members present be required to elect a new GBC member.

2. That His Holiness Giriraja Swami will be acting co-GBC for Bombay.

3. That His Holiness Bhakti Tirtha Swami will be assistant GBC along with Srila Jayatirtha Goswami and His Holiness Brahmananda Swami for West and East Africa,

4. That Atreya Rsi Prabhu will be co-GBC for Detroit.

5. That the Midwest centers of Chicago and St.Louis are reassigned to the sole jurisdiction of Srila Rameswara Swami.

6. That HDG Jayatirtha Goswami and Atreya Rsi Prabhu along with Ambarisha Prabhu will be trustees on a separate foundation which will manage Ambarish’s funds for ISKCON.

7. That HDG Rameswara Swami is appointed GBC responsible for the Matsya Project.

8. That HH Prabhupada Krpa Goswami and Jagaddisha Prabhu will be co-GBC for upstate New York (except Lake Hungtington)

Other Zonal Assignments.

9. HDG Kirtanananda Swami: Ohio, W.Virginia, Indiana, Kentucky, and West Pennsylvania (in co-ordination with His Divine Grace Satsvarupa Das Goswami)

10. HH Prabhupada Krpa Goswami: (New York, New Zealand, New England, region as previously stated). Australia, New Zealand, Indonesia.

11. HDG Satsvarupa Das Goswami: Middle East, USA, Carribbean, Guyana, Surinam, Santo Domingo (see 1981 assignment).

HDG Jayatirtha Goswami: England, Ireland, Iceland, Maritius (reunion), Michigan, East and South Africa, Marianna Islands
co-GBC for Jaganatha Puri.
Co-GBC for Detroit.

13. HDG Jayapataka Swami: Co-GBC with HDG Bhavananda Goswami for Sri Mayapur Dhama, Calcutta.
Co-GBC with HDG Gopal Krishna Goswami for Goa.GBC for W.Bengal, Orissa, Bihar, Sikkim,Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Kerala, Lakshadweep. Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Nepal, Thailand, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia.
Co-GBC HDG Hamsadutta Swami-Maldives Islands.

14. Atreya Rsi Prabhu: Co-GBC Bhaktivedanta Institute.
Middle East (except Israel) ie., Arab speaking world including Pakistan. Sanfrancisco.

15. HDG Hrdayananda Das Goswami: Brazil, Florida, Uruguay, Venezuela.

16. HDG Rameswara Swami: West USA, St.Louis, Chicago (midwest region), Japan. (see 1981 assignment)

17. HDG Pancadravida Swami: Mexico, Guatemala, Elsavador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia and Equador,

18. Rupanuga Prabhu: Tennessee, N.Carolina, S.Carolina, Louisiana Mississippi, Georgia, Alabama.

19. Balavanta Prabhu: E.Tennessee.

20. HDG Bhagavan Das Goswami: Holland, Belgium, Luxenbourg, France, Italy, Spain, Portugal, Greece, Taihiti, Canary Islands.

21. HDG Tamal Krsna Goswami: China, Hong Kong, Macau, Taiwan, Texas, Oklahama, Arkansas, Kansas, Nebraska, Iowa.

22. HDG Harikesa Swami: Scandanavia, Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Eastern Europe, USSR, Argentina.

23. HH Jagajivan Swami: Peru, Bolivia, Chile.

24. HDG Bhavananda Goswami: Co-GBC Mayapur, Calcutta.
GBC – UP, (Vrndavana), MP, Rajasthan.

25. HDG Bhakti Swarupa Damodar Swami: Co-GBC Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Tripira, Meghalaya.
GBC – Manipur, Nagaland, Arunachal Pradesh.

26.HDG Gopal Krsna Goswami: Co-GBC – Bombay.
GBC – Maharastra, Gujerat, Delhi, Chandigarh, Haryana, Jammu & Kashmir, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Canada, Seattle.

27. HDG Hansadutta Swami: Berkely, Portland, Phillippines, Malaysia, Singapore, Sri Lanka.
Co-GBC – Maladive Islands.

28. Vasudeva: Fiji.

29. That Jayatirtha Goswami and Bhakti Swarupa Damodar Swwami will be co-GBC’s along with Mahamsa Das for Andhra Pradesh,
Mahamsa Das will be given one year to explore the situtation there.

30. That each GBC man of the total GBC body will pay $5000 (five thousand dollars) towards the re-opening of the Sri Sri Radha Govinda Mandir in New York city.

31. That the 2.5 % of the US BBT funds for 1982 which last year went to New Vrndavana in recognition of its status as a national tirtha, will be instead applied to the legal cased of Yusaoff and George. If there is any balance it will go to New Vrndavana.

32. That Gopal Krsna Maharaja will arrange to mortgage the Seattle ISKCON temple for $ 50,000 (fifty thousand) and the four contributors Rameswara Swami($24,000),Satsvarupa Goswami($6,000), Jayatirtha Goswami($10,000) and Atreeya Rsi Prabhu($10,000) will be repaid immediately.Out of consideration for Seattle temple the above contributors will contribute funds for the first years mortagage payments.

33. That Adi Kesava Prabhu is given an indifinite leave of absence from the GBC.

34. That Balavanta Prabhu has been given the portfolio of GBC in charge of legal affairs and he is therefore relieved of other zonal responsibilities. In this capacity he will oversee all legal affairs of the ISKCON socity in the US. He and Amarindra will be given the responsibility to work with other attornies.

35. That the San Jose preching centers run by Dheera Krsna Swami is not recognized as part of ISKCON.

36. That no sannyasi eventhough initiated by other Gaudiya Acaryas will be allowed to give classes or preach within ISKCON temples until they have been examined and approved by the GBC body especially in regards to their acceptance of His Divine Grace A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada as the founder Acarya ultimete authority in matters of the ISKCON movement and who accept the GBC as his representative.

37. That each GBC will be permitted only 5 proposals at the annual GBC meeting.

38. That the temple presidents at their annual meeting shall appoint committees for performing duties given by the GBC or its standing committes.

39. That the follwing have been approved to take sannyasa order of life at the 1982 Gaura Purnima festival or anytime thereafter:

1. Jagadisha dasa : HDG Kirtanananda Swami
2. Radhanatha dasa : HDG Kirtanananda Swami
3. Subhag dasa : HDG Bhavananda Swami
4. Agrani dasa : HDG Satsvarupa Swami
5. Bhagavat Darshan Acarya : HDG Tamal Krsna Goswami
6: Maha Krama dasa : HDG Satsvarupa Goswami
7. Prahlanananda dasa : HDG Satsvarupa Goswami
8. Vipramukhya dasa : HDG Satsvarupa Goswami
9. Dhanurdara dasa : HDG Satsvarupa Goswami
10. Nitai Chand dasa : HDG Bhavananda Goswami
11. Ramai dasa : HH Prabhupada Krpa Swami
12. Narahari dasa : HDG Rameswara Swami
13. Ravi Candra dasa : HDG Rameswara Swami
14. Vysmbara das : HDG Bhagavandas Goswami
15. Sundaraupa das : HDG Bhagavandas Goswami
16. Mukunda das : HDG Jayapataka Swami
17. Sri Padamkuja das : HDG Jayapataka Swami
18. Bhanu Swami : HDG Jayapataka Swami
19. Sachi Suta das : HDG Jayapataka Swami
20. Tatpor das : HDG Bhavananda Goswami
21. Devamrta das : HDG Harikesa Swami}
22. Dvarakesa das : ” }not to be
23. Suhotra das : ” }published
24. Sucandra das : ” }

40. The following have been put on the one year waiting list to be given Sannyasa in 1983.

1. Gunagrahi dasa : HDG Rameswara Swami
2. Gaura Mandala Bhumi : HH Prabhupada Krpa Swami
3. Ksiti Mohan dasa : HDG Pancadravida Swami
4. Maha Srnga dasa : HDG Jayapataka Swami
5. Sivananda Sena das : HDG Kirtanananda Swami
6. Tapapunja das : HDG Kirtanananda Swami
7. Nityodita das : HDG Kirtanananda Swami
8. Lakshmi Nrsingha das
9. Roma Pada das
10. Urjasvat das

41. That for this year the waiting period of for 2 years is listed for the Sannyasa recommendations approved for 1982.

42. That the secretary of the GBC should sind out the copies of the new laws of ISKCON within 3 months of the GBC meeting.

43. That the GBC rule of order section on duties of the officers committee be amended to add the following clause.
To nominate an existing GBC member to act as ad-hoc GBC representative for a zonal or administrative area that is vacant. This must be confirmed at the next possible full GBC meeting.
If there is a local regional GBC committee it will make a recommendation for the nomination.

44. That all ISKCON acaryas should make a commitment for preaching at least 2 weeks in Bombay.

45. That a committee will be formed under the direction of the MDPC which will work in Bombay for the purpose of fund raising for the Sri Mayapur project.

46. That the book The Varnasrama -Manifesto by HDG Harikesa Swami represents the realization of the author and does not represent the official view or policies of the International Society For Krsna Consciousness.

47. That the festival committee shall insure full festival facilities i.e, prasadam, rooms, parikramas, for those who go directly to Vrndavana from Mayapur.

48. That Gopal Krsna Maharaja and Jayatirtha Maharaja be co-GBC for the Vaikuntha players.

MARCH 1,1982.

1. That a worship be held during the summer with Jagadisha Prabhu, Sri Ram, Burjana, Rameswara Swami, Dritakarma, Jyotirmayee & others concerned to plan out the writing of the Gurukula syllabus.

2. That Jayatirtha Goswami, Atreya Rsi and Ambarisha will make proposals to be confirmed before the GBC body on how & where funds from Ambarish’s foundation will be used for ISKCON projects.

3. That all ISKCON farm projects will send detailed information re: size,equipment,production soil,etc.,to Sahasranghri das in Spain with the aim of getting International funding especially for the Sri Mayapur project.

4. That all ISKCON centers shall always offer hospitality to any life members who visit of at least prasadam. Life members should be offered to stay overnight regardless of how meager the facilities are and of it is not possible to afford accomodations then it is the responsinility of the temple to give assistance in finding accomodations.

5. That when a life member is enrolled he is given a list of the actual facilities of our ISKCON throughout the world.

6. That committee of Jayapataka Swami Bhavananda Goswami & Gopal Krsna Goswami will write a paper for all ISKCON centers explaining the importance of the life membership program as Srila Prabhupada enlivioned it, to be posted in all centers.

7. That GBC members who have not transfered contral of the sale or mortgage pf all ISKCON properties to the 3 GBC trustees as per Srila Prabhupada’s last will, by next years meeting (1983) will be reduced to the status of acting GBC, until such time as the transfer is completd.
If this is still not done by the following year (1984) then he will be asked to resign from the GBC body.
Special exceptions can be made with approval by the legal committee.

8. That Rameswara Swami will consult with Balavanta Prabhu, Rupanuga Prabhu and Hrdyanananda Goswami to see if the sale of the Miami temple can be broken. If so the Miami temple should not be sold.

9. All properties purchased by or on the instruction of an ISKCON officer with funds collected through any means shall be placed in the name of ISKCON, BBT, or any other society name authorized by the GBC unless legally impractical. In any case, they must be governed by the same direction of Srila Prabhupada’s will.

10. Individual members of the executors board shall take responsibility for seeing to the implementation of the three trustees principle from Srila Prabhupada’s will as follows:
Rameswara Swami – USA
Gopal Krsna Goswami – Canada
Jayatirtha Goswami – Europe & Africa
Gopal Krsna Goswami }
Jayapataka Swami } India
Giriraja Swami }
Tamal Krsna Goswami – Rest of the world

11. No properly in which the Deity of the Lord is installed can be sold without approval of thee GBC body.

12. No building in which the Diety of the Lord is installed should be underlies as far as possible. When necessary in order to purchase the building initially a mortagage may be taken an additional mortagage may be taken an additional mortagage should not be taken once the building is paid off. In principle the temple should never be reembersed.

13. That committee be formed to make a careful study of Srila Prabhupada’s books and various instructions to his disciples in order to gain a comprehensive understanding of his overall vision for making the would Krsna Conscious. Such committee shall submit a report of its conslusions with appropriate recommendations for the practical execution and fulfilment of this vision to the GBC body at its annual meeting in 1983.

14. That every zone should establish at least one legal short wave “ham” radio transreception facility and if feasible in every major temple which can be useful for ISKCON’s informal communications preaching and emergency requirements for a minute cost.

15. That HH Prabhupada Krpa Goswami take charge of the development of astrological research for future use in the society and society at large, as per Shyamsundar prabhu’s report.

16. That when every Kumbha Mela (every 12 years and Arddha Mela festival (every 6 years) the Vrndavan center will inform one year in advance the all India GBC management committee and they will co-ordinate proper observance of this festival.
Temples from around the world will be informed 6 months- 1 year in advance so that those devotees that want may attend thus upholding Srila Prabhupada’s tradition in this regard.

17. That FATE artists will first concentrate on produding original small dioramas, which would make up a FATE gallery of between 8-20 dioramas which would be marketed to temples at cost.

18. The next major FATE museums would be the Prabhupada Samadhi Museums would go to India to supervise the qualify of the work done by local Indian artists.

19. That anyone holding a responsible position in or connected with ISKCON should make the oath of allegiance that GBC’s make. This includes Sannyasis, BBT managers etc.

20. a. That the GBC shall be the ultimate authority all over the world for controlling the use of the names”ISKCON”, “International Society For Krsna Consciousness” , “Hare Krsna Movement” and other names related to the ISKCON Movement .

b. The GBC shall be the full and final authority to rescind right to use or operate the above mentioned names, and anyone using the ISKCON names without permission shall be legally stopped.

c. Sri Balavanta das Adhidary’s legal group shall, after proper legal reviews, take all the necessary steps to insure, through existing International Trade mark copyright convention that all corporations or groups, use the above names under a franchise authorized by the GBC following the scheme presented to that effect.

21. That ISKCON Sannyasis, officers, and others senior responsible members of the Society shall increase their active assistance to the governing body commission in maintaining the spiritual standard of ISKCON, expanding the dynammic preaching of ISKCON, and preserving Srila Prabhupada’s mood and instructions. To achieve this end the following programmes are accepted to provide greater facility:
A. Sannyasi Assembly

The existing resolution 17.II on yearly sannyasi meetings shall be ammended as follows:
” That ISKCON sannyasis are individually and collectively responsible for maintaing the purity and high spiritual standard in ISKCON by their personal example and their preaching according to the instructions of Srila Prabhupada, as such each ISKCON sannyasi should allocate some time for travelling and preaching in various ISKCON temples in addition to his existing administative or other responsiblities. All ISKCON sannyasis shall meet together every year at the Mayapur festival. This meeting shall be known as the ” Sannyasi Assembly “. This is a sub-committee under the GBC . The GBC Chairman shall schedule its meetings conveniently and this assembly will perform the following duties:
1. To discuss the maintenance of ISKCON’s spiritual standards
2. To tender suggestions when necessary to the GBC for protection of ISKCON’s spiritual standards (re:philosophical soundness, preaching, faith in ISKCON institutions), and whenever possible to preach for this purpose.
3. To coordinate the schedule of travel programes for each sannyasi to travel and preach at temples outside his immediate administrative area (if any), ensuring proper distribution of that preaching.
4. To establish among the sannyasis a standard of sannyasi life, according to Srila Prabhupada’s ideas and to help other sannyasi members to maintain the will as to assist and encoutrage candidates to come up to the standard.
5. To review candidates for sannyas according to the guideliness of the GBC, and to make recommendations in that regard.
6. To elect a Secretary General, preferably a non GBC member, who is responsible for implementation of programmes, coordination, and maintaining minutes, and who will assist when necessary in coordinating preaching tours with GBC’s, Regional Secretaries, and temple presidents, in terms of time, finance and preference, and who will orginize and maintain tour programmes.
7. To organize informal get togethers during the year if desired.
8. To maintain minutes of the meetings,to be kept at Sri Mayapur.

B. Rotational Attendence of GBC Meetings by Senior Devotees

That three senior members of ISKCON shall be invited to attend GBC meetings for the next years as non-voting observers, with the rights of an assistant GBC for the meeting (ie.,he can make proposal and participate in discussions). Unless having committed some disqualfying activity during the year, the following nominated officers of the previous year shall attend the meetings:
1. Chairman, or in his absence, the Vice-Chairman of the temple presidents meeting of the previous years.
2. the highest non GBC officer of the sannyasi assembly of the previous years, or in his absence another non GBC sannyasi, appointed for the purpose.
3. another senior responsible devotee dlected by the GBC body for the purpose.

These devotees shall have the following duties:
1. To maintain the secrecy and other obligations of regular
GBC members in terms of loyalty to the body.
2. To serve on GBC sub committes etc. when necessary
3. To perform special assignments given by the GBC

C. Temple Presidents – Regional Secretaries Workshop And Meetings

That the GBC Rules of Order, Section VII, B2, concerning Presidents Annual Meeting, shall be amended as follows:

An additional meeting of Temple Presidents and for Regional secretaries (seperately or together) shall be held during or after the annual GBC meetings at Sri Mayapur, in the form of Isthagosthi workshops, where the Presidents and for Regional secretaries can informally exchange ideas on how to spread Krishna Consciousness and strengthen the movement. During the general annual presidents meeting the schedule for the next years Isthagosthi workshop shall be finalized.As many Presidents/Regional Secretaries as possible shall attend.
In pursuance to this, additional amemndments concerning the Prersidents Annual meeting are as follows:

VII C.1. To elect a Chairman,Voce Chairman Secretary and Sargent at arms for the meeting.
VII C.12. The elect Sargent at arms shall strictly regulate admission, participation, and voting at the annual Presidents meeting to only those persons authorized to participate and vote, as well as to keep order during the meetings.
22. Amendment: The president’s meeting shall appoint committees on the request of the GBC or the GBC commitees to fulfill duties as assigned.

MARCH 1,1982.

1. That since all the spiritual knowledge and instruction required is available in Srila Prabhupada’s books and from ISKCON, no ISKCON member shall be allowed to seek spiritual instruction from any other person or institution outside of ISKCON without approval of the GBC body.

2. That any member of ISKCON who willfully disobeys the above order will thereby sever his connection with ISKCON.

MARCH 5,1982.

1. That devotees who live and work within ISKCON must be initiated in ISKCON except:
a. If someone was previously initiated by a recognized sampradaya who afterwards wants to join and serve in ISKCON under the approval and direction of the local GBC.

2. That anyone who was previously initiated in ISKCON who has taken further initiation outside of ISKCON must renounce their non-ISKCON initiation in order to work within ISKCON.

3. That such reformed devotees will be reassigned a preaching field by the GBC officers committee for a one year probation.

4. That the “considerations for chasing an acarya” be a standing order of ISKCON as follows:
I Necessity

1. if any acaryas feels that his preaching area is too large to see the devotees on a regular basis, this would constitute a necessity for adding an initiating guru.
2. if any acarya feels that he doesn’t want to initiate any more disciples, this could create a need.
3. when significant member of advanced Vaisnavas recognize outstanding qualities of particular devotee to become an initiating guru this could create a need.
II Qualification

1. He is learned in Sastras .Srila Prabhupada says in the first canto of Srimad Bhagavatam that the acarya
does not deliver lectures capriciously or does not try to screw some obscure meaning out of the scriptures. His sastric knowledge should be firmly based in siddhanta or conclusion, and he should be effective in his practical preaching.
2. He should show understanding of, and dedicatiion to Srila Prabhupada’s mission, maintaining and establishing book distribution and other projects.
3. He recognizes the GBC as the ultimate managing authority in ISKCON.
4. He has excelled in preaching activities.
5. He should also be free from Kamini, attachment to sense gratification, pratistha , false prestige and personal ambitions, and Kancan, the accumulative spirit.
6. He should be free from nisiddha – acar , behavior against Vaisnava principles, he should also be free of kutinati , diplomatic or duplicitous behaviour. He should also be free from puja or the desire for personal worship; and he should be free from labha , mundane profiteering.

III Vows

1. He must agree that his personal mission is the same as the mission of Srila Prabhupada, to flood the world with transcendental literatures like Bhagavad Gita and Srimad Bhagavatam and to “do as he was doing” in establishing ISKCON all over the world.
2 .He must agree that Srila Prabhupada is represented by ISKCON and that ISKCON is governed by the GBC. Even Srila Prabhupada said he was a member of ISKCON; so when Srila Prabhupada gives one permission to he a guru, it is to be a guru for and within ISKCON, not outside.
3. He must agree that external behaviour is indeed a sign of internal realization, and must harmonize with ISKCON policies in general, and never act in a way which might unnecessarily jeopardize our worldwide mission. He should understand that taking disciples restricts external behaviour.
4. He must agree to carefully study and review aspiring disciples, so as not to make a mockery of the initiation process, and he must give his disciples directions and examples which corroborate with that of Srila Prabhupada and teach this disciples that they are part of ISKCON.
5. That as ISKCON is non different from His Divine Grace A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada no one has the right to lead anyone away from ISKCON.
6. That when there are significant difficulties with a GBC member one should state his problem in writing and forward to the GBC officers committee for necessary consideration.

MARCH 6. 1982

1. That Jayatirtha Maharaja is suspended from his duties of GBC and Initiating guru.

2. That only photographs Srila Prabhupada, the previous acaryas and approved ISKCON acaryas can placed in ISKCON temples. Besides only lecture tapes Srila Prabhupada or his authorized representators can be heard in ISKCON temples.

3.New zonal assignments:

HDG Bhavananda Goswami : Co GBC Detroit.
HDG Gopal Krsna Goswami : Co GBC Andhra Pradesh.
H.H.Bhakti Tirtha Swami : assisting GBC E.Africa.